Friday, September 30, 2016

Environmental Policy and Management Component


The Environmental Policy and Management Component will support the realization of Vision 2030 in general and, specifically, in the areas of environmental planning and governance, with the assumption that an enabling policy and regulatory framework for environmental and natural resource management, including climate change, is developed and implemented with a poverty orientation. In the First Medium-Term Plan up to 2012 the following strategies under environmental planning and governance will be supported:

•    Upgrade the capacity of institutions for enhanced environmental data and information coverage and application;
•    Develop a policy framework to harmonize environmental-related laws and institutions, and promote the capacity for collective enforcement of environmental standards;
•    Strengthen institutional capacities of multi-sectoral planning and strengthen linkages between institutions of planning and environmental management;
•    Establish a baseline on the state of the environment for future environmental planning; and
•    Strengthen negotiating capabilities through top talent development and compliance with Multilateral Environment Agreements (MEAs).

Background for the support

The Government’s long-term strategy in the Vision 2030 is: “A Globally Competitive and Prosperous Kenya”. The Vision will be implemented through five-year rolling plans, starting with the First Medium-Term Plan (2008-2012).  The Vision aims at creating a cohesive, equitable and just society based on democratic principles and issue-based politics, pegged on Kenya’s rich and diverse cultures and traditions. In respect of environmental management, the Vision takes recognition of the fact that economic growth and urbanization, combined with climatic change, are likely to impact negatively on the environment, and will require effective management to ensure sustainability. These economic, social and global changes will exert immense pressure on the already declining natural resource base and on the country’s fragile environment. It is stated that this necessitates a strong policy on the environment in order to sustain economic growth while mitigating the impact of rapid industrialization.

The Vision furthermore states that Kenya’s current institutional framework to manage the environment is characterized by fragmentation. Various aspects of the environment policy cut across different institutions. Although the Environmental Management and Coordination Act (EMCA 1999), which was enacted with the primary objective of improving the coordination and management of the environment, legislation of relevant laws and regulations, has not yet been completed. Policy and institutional reform for stricter enforcement, therefore, poses a challenge that can be overcome by the implementation of the strategic thrusts of Vision 2030, namely through “developing a policy framework to harmonize environment-related laws and institutions, and promote the capacity for collective enforcement of environmental standards”. The Vision for the environment is “a clean, secure and sustainable environment”. This is inspired by the principle of sustainable development and by the need for equity in access to the benefits of a clean environment. To realize the Vision, the Government will focus on four strategic thrusts, including environmental planning and governance. The goal is to build institutional capacity in environmental planning, enhancing the impact of environmental governance in order to improve the overall management of the environment.

Component objective

The objective of the Component is to have an enabling policy and regulatory framework for environmental and natural resource management, including climate change, developed and implemented with a poverty orientation.

Component strategy

The framework is aligned to the national planning framework, including Vision 2030 and the first Medium-Term Plan and the strategic plans of the participating institutions. Specific support within this framework will be based on the annual plans and budgets of the respective institutions and the performance contracts signed between the heads of the institutions and the Head of Public Service, countersigned by the relevant Ministers and endorsed by the Prime Minister. The general principle for implementation of the component is that normal Government procedures will be followed. Annual work plans, in line with the overall strategic plan, will be the principal means by which detailed activities to be carried out are identified. The senior management teams within the respective institutions will be responsible for all progress reporting and for the maintenance of the monitoring and management information system. They will ensure that the component is implemented, outputs are achieved, and funds are managed efficiently and effectively.

The support to be provided will be subject to annual consultations between the Danish Ambassador and the heads of the institutions – the accounting officers. This framework will enhance the principle that the assistance provided through the NRM Programme should be demand-driven, flexible and supporting national policies and strategies. The annual consultations will ensure that the support is performance-based and maximize the capacities available for promoting the implementation of the Government’s environmental policies, coordination and management.

The Component has three sub-components:
1.1    Environmental Policy and Co-ordination.
The objective of this sub-component is to strengthen the institutional framework for addressing environmental policy, planning and coordination. The sub-component is aligned to the MEMR’s Strategic Plan 2008-2012 (June 2009) and will support the following strategic objectives:

•    To improve the institutional, policy, legal and regulatory framework for a sustainable environment that allows effective coordination at horizontal and vertical levels of government and with the private sector and civil society;
•    To mainstream environmental, climate and mineral concerns into overall planning, implementation and monitoring of government and partners, so as to reduce environmental degradation and strengthen the role of environment and natural resources in reducing poverty;
•    To ensure that all units within ministerial departments and partners have clear roles and mandates, with sufficient trained staff and resources to implement and monitor their responsibilities effectively and efficiently; and
•    To raise real awareness of the importance of environmental matters within national and local political leaders; stressing social and economic importance as well as ecological consequences.

It has three outputs:

•    Policy framework for environment, as well as climate change issues, developed and mainstreamed / incorporated in selected sector plans and strategies;
•    Awareness strategies and programmes on environmental, as well as on climate change, issues developed and implemented addressing all levels of society; and
•    MEMR capacity strengthened to formulate and implement policies, regulations and strategies on environment as well as on climate change.

1.2    Environmental Management.

The objective is to have an advanced and consolidated sustainable environmental management. It is aligned to NEMA’s Strategic Plan 2008-2012 (June 2009), and it will support the following strategic objectives:

•    To enhance environmental education, public participation and awareness;
•    To coordinate lead agencies and other stakeholders in environmental management;
•    To strengthen the Authority’s capacity to undertake its mandate;
•    To conduct research surveys and disseminate research findings

It has also three outputs:

•    Enhanced understanding of environmental issues and the need to develop in a sustainable manner;
•    Enhanced coordination by NEMA of environmental management activities of other lead agencies; and
•    A capacitated NEMA, at the national and provincial/district levels, effectively and efficiently fulfilling its mandate.

1.3    Sustainable Development.

The objective of the sub-component is to strengthen the overall policy coordination of natural resource management. The Strategic Plan of the Office of the Prime Minister 2009 – 2012 (June 2009) foresees the establishment of the Environment and Climate Change Unit (ECCU) within the Policy Coordination Department. This Department will advise the Prime Minister on policy, economic and financial matters, and provide a policy framework and guidelines for the formulation and development of national policy for Cabinet approval. It will ensure the tracking of the implementation process and take action on feedback. The sub-component will assist the Office of the Prime Minister (OPM) in establishing and operationalising the ECCU under this department.

The sub-component has one output:

•    A lean, effective, strong and fully functional Environment and Climate Change Unit is established within the Policy Coordination Department in the Office of the Prime Minister.

Monitoring and reviews

The component will be supporting strategies and annual work plans of the participating institutions; hence, the monitoring system will be fully integrated into the monitoring systems and procedures of the institutions. However, support will be available to upgrade and capacitate this important function in Ministry of Environment & Mineral Resources (MEMR), NEMA and OPM. The aim of the monitoring system should be to document achievements of the institutions – their policies, strategies and plans – to allow the management to take remedial action if needed.

The key outcome indicators for the objective of the component and the means of verifications are:

•    Passing of three policy frameworks for environmental and climate management;
•    Passing of environmental plans for 28 districts in arid and semi-arid lands;
•    Implementation of 2-4 strategic environmental assessment guidelines in selected sectors;
•    Completion of 2-3 economic studies of the consequence of climate change conducted for updating of policy document “Vision 2030”;
•    Completion of the government’s budget and account systems before the  end of 2014;
•    The position of the MEMR on the government’s performance list will be improved by minimum one place per year.

These will be verified using the institutions’ annual budgets and performance reports and the government’s annual review for institutions quality and service delivery.

Annual reviews will be undertaken jointly by the GoK and Denmark. The annual reviews will normally take place in February/March in order to be synchronized with the Government’s planning and reporting cycle. They will assess progress in implementation and make recommendations for improvements and adjustments in the component design. In addition, technical reviews may be undertaken to assess progress in specific areas, including the use of the Revenue System.

The mission of the Ministry of Environment & Mineral Resources (MEMR) is to promote, monitor, conserve, protect and sustainably manage the environmental and mineral resources for national development. MEMR is fully committed to the realization that a sustainable environment is a fundamental pre-requisite in national development, poverty eradication and improved livelihoods for all generations. In view of this MEMR is now implementing a National Environmental Education and Awareness Initiative (EEAI) to educate and raise awareness on environmental challenges to all Kenyans and to encourage the participation of all stakeholders in environmental conservation and management.

Environmental Challenges

Several environmental challenges have been experienced in Kenya mainly due to over-exploitation of natural resources and emission of wastes and pollutants into the environment leading to degradation. Some of the key challenges include:

Pollution of the environment especially related to land, water and air has led to adverse effects on animal and human health as well as the quality of the environment. As such, pollution poses a major challenge to environmental management which has been exacerbated by inadequate treatment facilities as well as irregular collection and disposal procedures.

EEAI will inform the public on environmental challenges such as air pollution

• Deforestation
Extensive destruction of forests has been rampant in the past due to illegal logging and excisions among other threats. This has also led to the loss of forest cover and the subsequent destruction of water catchment areas. Loss of tree cover has significantly reduced the vegetation cover which act as natural sinks for carbon dioxide. Deforestation has enhanced climate change and its impacts. In addition, it has resulted in increased occurrence of ?oods, soil erosion and drought. Some of the consequences of deforestation being
experienced in the country include reduction in water and hydro-electric power supply leading increased production costs of goods and services which will ultimately slow down Kenyan economic growth.

• Global warming and climate change
The earth’s atmosphere is getting warmer due to global warming which is causing climate change. The change in climate has led to altered rainfall patterns, variability and extremes of weather. This has led to increase in frequency and intensity of floods, droughts and rise in sea levels. This has affected crop yields, increased vector borne diseases, destroyed infrastructure, contaminated fresh waters and degraded agricultural lands.

•Land use
Poor land use has led to land degradation. Though caused by both natural and human activities, land degradation has led to desertification, loss of water, soil infertility, poor crop yields and loss of biodiversity. Land degradation has reduced soil productivity and opportunities for livelihoods’ potential to contribute to national development. EEAI will promote land use guidelines that will be developed by lead agencies based on sectoral policies within the framework of EMCA (1999) in order to mitigate this challenge. Land degradation in arid and semi arid lands

• Waste management
Waste comprises of solid, liquid and gaseous components. These are primarily penerated as a result of human activities. A great deal of wastes generated is illegally dumped leading to physical accumulation or its discharge to fresh water as effluents. Waste management is a great challenge to the country due to the absence of appropriate technologies and modern facilities. Improper waste disposal has also enhanced land degradation and reduced the quality of the environment. EEAI will promote waste reduction, reuse and recycling in order to safeguard the quality of the environment.

Public and Private Sector Participation
The Kenyan economy is primarily dependent on agriculture and natural resources. However, initiatives for sustainable management of environmental and natural resources do not receive high priority in budgetary allocation. There is need to create awareness on the value of the environment in order to enhance individual and corporate responsibility towards the same. Participation in environmental activities will in?uence ownership, positive change of attitude and change of behaviour. The public and private sector participation provides an opportunity for involvement, ownership and partnerships in environmental management. EEIA will help enhance this potential to encourage a culture of corporate social responsibility towards the environment in this sector. In addition, EEIA will encourage the private sector to increase its level of investments in environmental management as a way of giving back to nature for sustainable development. Unsustainable logging of trees has been a major environmental challenge in the country. EEAI will promote tree planting in schools and tertiary institutions.

EEAI Resource Mobilization
The initiative is likely to expand in scope

EEAI aims to work with local communities in activities such as tree planting


This is an initiative by MEMR to provide a platform to inform, educate and engage various stakeholders. The goal is to enhance voluntary initiatives and participation in environmental conservation activities by every Kenyan through education and awareness campaigns. This is expected to foster inclusiveness and partnerships in environmental conservation and management. The implementation of EEAI will ensure effective stakeholder involvement and resource mobilization in environmental management.

Objectives of EEAI

i) Increase environmental awareness and participation in environmental
ii) Mobilize the general public to get involved in the protection and conservation
of the environment and especially catchment conservation.
iii) Encourage media to embrace effective, positive and informative
environmental coverage in order to enhance awareness and prioritization
of the environment.

Proposed EEAI Activities

EEAI will mainly cover the following seven key areas:

• Public awareness campaigns
• Outreach and education
• Tree planting
• Clean-up campaigns
• Creating awareness of environmental challenges and solutions
• Promotion of best practices
• Dissemination of environmental messages through mass and folk media

Partnerships in Environmental Management Effective environmental management requires the participation of all stakeholders. EEAI will promote partnerships to integrate environmental management into the national development agenda across all sectors. The implementation of the initiative will take cognizance of the following approaches:
• Environment and Private sector

The Private Sector largely depends on the natural resource base as raw materials for production of products and services. However, the private sector often degrades the environment through generation & poor waste disposal, effluent discharge and emissions into the environment. As such EEAI offers a forum for public and
private sector partnerships in environmental conservation. This approach will synchronize activities for better management of the environment.

• Environment and Society

The civil society and general public comprise a major stakeholder in environmental management and governance. The society influence decision-making systems based on the level of understanding, physical location, knowledge, experience and presence. The initiative will work with organized groups such as CSOs and BOs in order to enhance environmental awareness.

• Environment and Youth

The Youth represent a large proportion of the Kenyan population and the future generation of the country. As such the youth provide a great potential in environmental conservation activities due to their large numbers and energies. EEAI will serve to provide a forum for youth participate in environmental conservation activities.Youth partnerships will be through learning institutions such as schools,colleges and universities as well as organized groups. Involvement the youth will enhance environmental consciousness and encourage good environmental practices for the future generation. Youth activities will include poems, art/music, drama, debate on topical issues, establishment of tree nurseries, tree planting activities and clean-up campaigns among others.

•Environment and Research

There is need to strengthen the link between research and environment. EEAI will encourage universities to undertake research on priority environmental issues in the country that will provide practical solutions and technologies.Other opportunities will be explored to identify potential areas of collaboration in both research and teaching. This will enhance the capacity in management of environmental issues.

•Environment and Media

The media is an important stakeholder in environmental education and awareness creation. The key advantage of the media is its’ ability to reach different audiences simultaneously with uniform messages. The main channels of communication include print and electronic media such as Newspapers, radio, television and cinema among others. As such, there is need to work closely with the media to enhance coverage of accurate information in the news, events, programmes and documentaries on topical environmental iissues. It is expected that this will help in?uence positive attitude and change of behaviour. The media houses are therefore urged to embrace environmental conservation as Social Corporate Responsibility (CSR).

Mobilization & Implementation Strategies

Several environmental mobilization strategies have been developed by various stakeholders such as those by National Environment Management Authority (NEMA). EEAI will harness and supplement these efforts, carry out education and awareness campaigns, help strengthen capacity of existing efforts and galvanize sectoral and institutional partnerships involving all partners. EEAI will promote the conservation of wetlands

EEAI Expected Outcomes

i. Positive change of attitude and participation in environmental conservation
among the Kenyan public
ii. Enhanced prioritization of the environment among stakeholders
iii. Enhanced partnerships in environmental governance between MEMR
and stakeholders


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